怎么样编写英文科技(science and technology)杂谈

想要撰写一篇出色的英文科研散文,对于非匈牙利(Hungary)语母语的科研工我而言并非一件容易的作业。有时候能不能投到更高分的笔记刊物与写作水平也密不可分。本文通过整治Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍怎样编写一篇优良的英文科研杂文。

想要写一篇非凡的英文科研随想,就要先了然什么是美好的舆论什么不是。
编制不希罕看看的篇章类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的文章
(2)用语不当夸大其词或宣布有误
(3)语法和其他错误百出

一般而言而言一篇科研散文包含以下一些:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

Title

标题是编辑或许阅读者首先观察的,由此取一个好标题非常首要。
咱俩要用最少的单词归纳出作品的主旨,对标题有以下三点须要:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.幸免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.平淡无奇拔取以下二种格局:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

Abstract

Abstract的目的是为着扶持读者很快理解文章的始末。
有以下多少个要求:
1.独立性和完整性
可以单独存在并可以传达全文核情绪想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
因为Abstract有字数限制,大家必须用不久几句话表达全文的核感情想,由此每个单词和语句都要致密推敲
3.试样符合期刊的专业
以发布在Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为例:

image.png

格林:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以简单提实验艺术)
红线:计算(可以适量展望升高)

Introduction

1.介绍本文研商世界的前行景色(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是与本文主线最相关的商讨背景。紧要的点一定要涉及到。细节处可以在文中提及时再介绍。
2.经过座谈本商讨世界为竭泽而渔的难题(包蕴团结以前发布诗歌未缓解的题目),自然过渡到介绍你的试验目标和关键。
3.在终极简单介绍本商量所做的始末和结论。
注意:
肯定要在少数的篇幅内完善介绍已知不易背景,不过并非过度铺开,只要围绕作品主线器重介绍有关的背景即可。

Materials and Methods

对峙而言那是一篇文章最轻松的有的,不过此部分也是最不难犯错的局地。经常方法质感有些的语法检查最不仔细,常见难题总结:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

Results

1.逻辑很关键,有系统的讲述故事。注意段与段间的逻辑。可以在每一有些的小结果的开赛写一些承上启下的句子以三番五次段落。

  1. 每一段表明一个见识。在每段中也要有逻辑(时间顺序,从包涵到实际的相继,因果顺序),可以运用平行的句式和卓有功用的连接词。起始和末段很要紧,在结尾处要做令人回忆长远的强调。
    3.对试验结果举行标准的讲述。假如语言不当会造成误解。推测的结果应该使用部分代表估计、大概的修饰词语。
    4.对试验结果举行合理的统计和表明。
    5.若是篇章多次用到同一连串实验,在首回介绍时可详细一些,让读者更便于精晓,而后来的介绍可以几乎些。
    6.
    在描述实验操作和尝试结果时用过去时,在写结论和启迪时用现时时。

叙述实验方法和结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
比较连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
结论和诱发时的常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

Discussion

商量是相对难写的一对,探究不是对结果粗略的罗列,而是对结果开展尤其深远的探讨:
你的钻研消除了世界中哪些难题和迷离
您的钻研指出了哪些新的恐怕
后来应该如何去进一步研讨等
一般,还足以在结尾处再下结论一下友好的探讨成果

1976年,William Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提议优质创作的三尺度:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.多用主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.多用动词,采用更纯粹的动词。良好动词,尽量不要把动词变为名词。
3.简短语言

用主动态

被动态包蕴:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
可以修改为:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
可以修改为:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

动词

  1. 分选更可信的动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 少把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 要将重大的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

精简语言的注意事项

1.不需求介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.去掉没有意思的词。例如: important

3.啰嗦的词简化,把精力花在重大的语句上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.双重意义的词或句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.剪掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.毫无常用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来改变句式,精简语言
支行(semicolon): 连接三个单身的从句。
圆括号(parenthesis):
加入解释或部分想法,即便没有那有些句子也应当是独立的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要标准。用于列举,引用,举例,第三个从句是首先个从句的延长。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释或概念。留给主要的用处。

在英文作文中大家常犯的难题:
1.科学用语的准头
2.时态谬误(描述实验进程结果时用过去式,计算实验结果时用前些天时)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的使用不当
航天科技,5.相比较不对等:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.用词或句式单一
7.语序难题
8.句子过长
9.行使口语化用词

末尾,那么大家到底要怎么压实写作技能呢?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

可以尝尝每回翻阅完随想后用两三句话回顾或臧否小说的内容
还可以将读过文章中的经典句式、好词摘录下来

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