怎编写英文科技论文

纪念使编写一篇优秀之英文科研论文,对于不英语母语的科研工作者而言并非同一宗容易之工作。有时候能否射到再也强分的记刊物和写作水平也紧密。本文通过整治Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍如何撰写一首优秀之英文科研论文。

顾念要写一篇优秀的英文科研论文,就设先行清楚啊是出色之舆论什么不是。
修不希罕看底章类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的稿子
(2)用语不当夸大其词或发表有无意
(3)语法和其它左

日常而言一篇科研论文包含以下部分:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

Title

题是编写或者阅读者首先看的,因此收获一个好题至关重要。
我们要用极少之单词概括出文章的主题,对题目来以下三碰要求:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.避免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.平凡以以下三栽形式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

Abstract

Abstract的目的是为帮助读者很快了解文章的情节。
来以下几独要求:
1.独立性与完整性
可以独自在并能够传达全文核心思想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
以Abstract有字数限制,我们必须用不久几句话说明全文的核心思想,因此各一个单词和语句都设过细推敲
3.形式符合期刊的业内
为发表于Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为例:

image.png

Green:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以简简单单提试方法)
红线:总结(可以适度展望提升)

Introduction

1.介绍本文研究世界的进步面貌(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是跟本文主线最相关的钻背景。重要之触发得要提到到。细节处可以在文中提及时再介绍。
2.透过座谈仍研究世界也缓解之题材(包括好之前发表论文不缓解之题目),自然过渡至介绍你的尝试目的和严重性。
3.每当终极简单介绍以研究所召开的情节和结论。
注意:
一定要以少的字数内完善介绍曾知道不易背景,但是不要过度铺开,只要围绕文章主线着重介绍有关的背景即可。

Materials and Methods

对立而言就是一致首稿子最自在的一对,但是这部分为是极容易犯错的组成部分。通常方法材料有的语法检查最不细致,常见问题概括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

Results

1.逻辑很重大,有条的描述故事。注意段以及段内的逻辑。可以在各个一样片的稍结果的开赛写有承上启下的词以连续段。

  1. 各个一样段表达一个见识。在各个段遭遇也如产生逻辑(时间顺序,从连到具体的一一,因果顺序),可以使平行的句式和行的连接词。开头和末段很重要,在结尾处要举行使人印象深刻的强调。
    3.针对性实验结果开展规范之叙述。如果语言不当会招致误解。推测的结果该使用部分象征想、可能的修饰词语。
    4.针对试验结果进行客观之总结与说明。
    5.如果篇章数采用同一种类实验,在率先糟介绍时不过详细一些,让读者更便于掌握,而自此的介绍好略些。
    6.
    在叙实验操作以及实验结果时用过去不时,在描写结论和启发时用现时时。

讲述实验方法及结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
正如连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
敲定与诱导时之常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

Discussion

议论是对立难写的有的,讨论不是指向结果粗略的摆,而是本着结果进行进一步深刻之讨论:
而的研究解决了世界被怎么样问题跟疑惑
若的钻提出了怎么新的也许
其后应该怎么样去进一步研究等
一般,还可当结尾处再下结论一下和好之研究成果

1976年,William Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提出可以创作之老三准:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.大多据此主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.大抵之所以动词,选择更规范之动词。突出动词,尽量不要拿动词变为名词。
3.简语言

因此主动态

叫动态包括:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
得修改为:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
好改也:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

动词

  1. 分选再标准的动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 掉把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 假使拿根本的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

从简语言的注意事项

1.不需介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.错过丢没有意思之歌词。例如: important

3.啰嗦的词简化,把精力花在显要的语句上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.更意义之词要句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.推掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.毫不常用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来改句式,精简语言
支行(semicolon): 连接两只单身的从句。
圆括如泣如诉(parenthesis):
加入解释或者部分设法,即使没有就有些句子也应当是独自的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要规范。用于列举,引用,举例,第二个自句是第一单由句的延长。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释还是概念。留给重要之用。

在英文作文中我们常犯的题目:
1.科学措辞的准确性
2.时态左(描述实验过程结果经常用过去式,总结实验结果时用现时常常)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的运不当
5.比不针对顶:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.之所以词或句式单一
7.语序问题
8.句子过长
9.动口语化用词

末尾,那么我们到底要怎么加强写作技能呢?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

可以尝尝每次看了论文后之所以两三句子话概括或评头品足文章的情
尚可将读了章被的经文句式、好词摘录下

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